The Science Behind Bōshi Nanofiber Skincare Technology
Bōshi’s nanofibers are manufactured through a patented ball electrospinning process with natural water soluble polymers – resulting in a stable, efficacious skincare delivery system for a wide range of uses and product applications.
More Stable & Efficacious Actives
Bōshi Nanofiber Technology
Traditional Skincare Formulas
With Bōshi nanofibers, more of the active ingredient (in this case, niacinamide) can be detected in the epidermis and eluted fraction compared to the traditional formulation solution – providing an overall more significant impact on your customers’ skin health.
Formulating with Bōshi Nanofibers
Functional ingredients are added directly to the polymer solutions and electrospun through our patented ball electrospinning process, leaving behind dry nonwoven nanofiber sheets with actives incorporated throughout. Bōshi technology opens the door to a wide range of uses and applications, including but not limited to water-free formulations.
- Microcrystalline cellulose powder
- Gelled oil beads
- Vitamin C
- Larger non-water-soluble or hard-to-disperse particles
Bōshi Nano Fiber Skincare Technology
Traditional Formulation Technology
More functional ingredients at high concentrations for improved efficacy
Few functional ingredients at low concentrations
No additives or preservatives required
Additives (emulsion stabilizers, rheology modifiers, etc.) required to prevent phase separation, discoloration, odors, reduced activity of functional ingredients, and microbial growth
Extremely low water activity
Contains up to 80% of water
Limitless formulation and ingredient options
Limited formulation options due to certain ingredients lacking stability in water-based formats, incompatible solvent systems or reactions that can occur between ingredients over time
Waterless, sustainable and biodegradable
Will take years to biodegrade – or may never at all
Oils can be added to the solution, but at certain concentrations, an emulsifier may be required. Additionally, oils can be incorporated into the nanofibers in a secondary process.
Almost any active can be included at different stages in the product manufacturing. Water-soluble actives, along with smaller non-water soluble particles, can be added to the spinning solution resulting in incorporation directly into the fibers. Hydrophobic actives may also be added to the solution, but in some cases this will require a surfactant. They can also be added into the product during a post-processing step. Oils, surfactants, and larger non-water soluble particles have been added as well. Actives can also be added into separate fiber layers, so that incompatible ingredients are kept apart during the manufacturing, remaining separate until applied on the skin.
Many polymers can be electrospun. For the cosmetic products we are developing, we are focusing on natural water soluble polymers, such as Pullulan, Dextran, Sodium Hyaluronate (HA), or Collagen. Synthetic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and poly(ethylene oxide) may also be used.
Pullulan and Dextran are both polysaccharides, so they easily biodegrade. HA and Collagen are also biodegradable.
All ingredients used in our nanofiber delivery system are safe to use around the eyes, but you must ensure that the ingredients used in your specific formula are safe as well.
Won’t the amount of water used have an effect on the amount of active that is being applied to the skin?
The amount of water used with the nano drops will affect the viscosity as well as the concentration of the active ingredient(s) in the dissolved solution. In order to have the best possible experience using Bōshi products, you should use the recommended amount of water, typically 8-10 drops for a nano drop. For nanostrips, simply wetting the face or intended application area will provide enough water to dissolve the nanostrip.
While the FDA does not define nanotechnology, in their guidance document they reference the definition adopted by the National Nanotechnology Initiative Program, which defines nanotechnology as “the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications”. Bōshi nanofibers have diameters of greater than 100 nm and less than ~1 micron, so while they are considered nanofibers according to industry accepted definitions, they would not fall into the category of nanotechnology. Link to full document.
Water insoluble particles that cannot be added to the polymer solution can be incorporated by placing them between the layers of nanofibers.
There are several benefits to having a water-free formula. Many actives will break down in water and lose efficacy; this problem is eliminated with a water-free formula. The product is more concentrated as the many fillers traditionally added to cosmetic formulations (pH stabilizers, rheology modifiers, etc.) are no longer necessary. Preservatives are typically not required due to the extremely low water activity. Lastly, there are many sustainability benefits. Not only are you not using water and many other inactive ingredients in the product, which reduces the energy required to ship, the amount of packaging that is required will also be reduced. All of this helps to lower the carbon footprint for water-free products.
For the RFM products, the MOQ is 25K applications. For custom products, it is 100K.
What is the maximum loading of HA in the fiber? Do you need some synthetic water-soluble polymer as supporting material to make HA fiber?
The maximum loading of the HA depends on the fiber formulation. This can be up to just over 80% if a synthetic copolymer is used, and up to approximately 50% if a natural copolymer is used.
We have used a variety of carriers, such as PET knits and nonwoven substrates. Looking for a more sustainable and biodegradable option, we have also started using parchment paper as a carrier as well as biodegradable nonwovens.
Absolutely. Actives can be added into the nano drops, just as we have done with the patches.
Yes, the nano drops can be fully biodegradable.
The main solvent we are using is water, so this has not been an issue.
The RFM products have a shelf life of 3 years, if individually packed, but stability will be dependent on actives and packaging.
Color can be added, but due to how light is scattered by the small fibers, only pastel or light colors are typically possible. Additionally, as the entire patch or pillow dissolves when placed on wet skin, any pigments in the fibers will end up on the skin as well.
Create with Bōshi
Ready to get started with a market-ready skincare solution – or to start your own project? Contact our team to start creating.